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Friday, September 30, 2016

U.S. Supreme Court to Weigh Level of Benefit Required by Special Education Law

From Education Week
via the Education Law Prof Blog

By LaJuana Davis
September 29, 2016

At Education Week's School Law Blog, Mark Walsh covers the U.S. Supreme Court's cert grant today in Endrew F. v. Douglas County School District RE-1 (No. 15-827), in which the Court may resolve a circuit split on the issue of what level of educational benefit must a child receive under his or her individualized education program, or IEP, for a school district to have provided a free appropriate public education under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

Walsh's article is below:

The U.S. Court of Appeals for the 10th Circuit, in Denver, ruled last year in the case of a Colorado child with autism that because the child's public school IEP had provided him with "some educational benefit," the Douglas County district had provided a "free, appropriate public education" under the IDEA.

The 10th Circuit court thus rejected a private school reimbursement for the parents of the boy identified as Endrew F. after the parents had pulled him from public school amid the dispute over his 5th grade IEP.

In an August, 2015 decision, the 10th Circuit court panel acknowledged that several other federal courts of appeals have adopted a higher standard that requires an IEP to result in a "meaningful educational benefit."

But the 10th Circuit, agreeing with a lower court in Endrew F.'s case, said that a key 1982 Supreme Court precedent on special education, Board of Education of the Hendrick Hudson Central School District v. Rowley, merely requires an IEP to provide "some educational benefit."

"The courts of appeals are in disarray over the level of educational benefit that school districts must confer on children with disabilities to provide them with a free appropriate public education under the IDEA," says the appeal filed on behalf of Endrew F. and his parents by his Denver lawyers and the Supreme Court Litigation Clinic at Stanford Law School.

"This court should use this case—which cleanly presents the legal issue on a well-developed set of facts—to resolve the conflict over this important question."

In May, the Supreme Court invited the U.S. solicitor general to file a brief expressing the views of the Obama administration. On Aug. 18, Acting Solicitor General Ian H. Gershengorn filed a brief that urged the justices to take up the appeal.

"This court should grant certiorari and overturn the 10th Circuit's erroneous holding that states must provide children with disabilities educational benefits that are 'merely ... more than de minimis' in order to comply with the IDEA," the brief states.

"The 10th Circuit's approach is not consistent with the text, structure, or purpose of the IDEA; it conflicts with important aspects of this court's decision in ...Rowley, and it has the effect of depriving children with disabilities of the benefits Congress has granted them by law."

Lawyers for the Douglas County district argued in briefs, including one filed in response to the solicitor general's recommendation to grant review, that the asserted split among the federal appeals courts is "shallow" and that only the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 3rd Circuit, in Philadelphia, "has consistently applied a purportedly more demanding 'meaningful benefit' standard."

"The government contends that the IDEA demands something 'more robust'" than the "some benefit" standard, says the school district brief. "The question is whether a state has satisfied its substantive obligations if the IEP it offers provides a child more than a de minimis educational benefit. Under Rowley the answer is yes."

Despite the district's arguments, the Supreme Court on Sept. 29 granted review, one of eight cases the justices added to their docket just before the formal start of their new term on October 3.

The Endrew F. case is likely to be argued sometime early next year.

Seattle Changed School Bell Times to Let Teens Sleep In. Here's What Happened

From KUOW 94.9 FM Seattle

By Ann Dornfeld
September 25, 2016

Seven-year-old Owen Randall and two-year-old brother Kinley Miller
ease into the day before school starts for Owen at 7:55 a.m.

Most teens in Seattle Public Schools get to sleep in this year - at least, relative to years past. After years of pressure from parents, teachers and sleep experts, the district flipped its bell times so that nearly all middle and high schools start at 8:45 a.m., and most elementary schools begin at 7:55 a.m. That's the opposite schedule from years past, when many elementary students didn't start until 9:30.

The changes were meant to fall more in line with children's biological clocks: To give teens, most of whom can't easily sleep before 11 p.m., the extra sleep they need in the morning, and to take advantage of early-rising young kids' prime morning learning hours.

"I’ve noticed that the mornings are a lot less stressful," said Kira Hoffman, an eighth-grader at Jane Addams Middle School. "I don’t feel super-rushed or worried about how much I’ve slept, or when I’m going to get to school, or if I’m going to be late."

Once at school, Hoffman said, she also feels more focused in her first-period class.

At Whittier Elementary, performing arts teacher Steph Turner led a class in a rendition of "Good Day, Sunshine" as the children did warm-up stretches. "Last year, it felt like by the end of the day they were so tired," Turner said. "But now, with the earlier start time, they have a lot more energy, in a good way! I’ve definitely seen a change in just overall attention."

Turner is also the mom of two elementary-schoolers and says they’re adapting to the earlier start. "It’s pretty early for the teachers; I think the teachers are having the hardest time getting up that early," she laughed. "My own two children seem to be doing pretty OK."

Still, the new times have meant difficult changes for some family routines, like new child care strategies and less time for teens' afternoon sports practice and after-school jobs.

And some young kids like to sleep in just like teenagers do. At Angie LaFave's home, she's both the alarm clock and the snooze button for her seven-year-old son Owen, a second-grader at Whittier. On a recent morning, she leaned over his bunk and tried gently to rouse him - for the third time. It was 6:45 a.m.

"Hey bud, can you wake up, honey?" LaFave said, sotto voce. "I am," Owen murmured, his eyes still closed.

Later, as bacon sizzled in the kitchen, Owen reclined on the sofa and reminisced about his school's old 8:40 start time. "It’s really hard, ‘cause I wish that I could sleep in ‘til nine," he said.

Even for families with night-owl elementary students and tough evening schedules, the changes should eventually become easier, said Dr. Maida Chen, who directs the Pediatric Sleep Disorders Center at Seattle Children’s. And for teens, parents will likely see noticeable patterns of improvement.

"I would hope to see that for our older children, our teenagers and our tweeners, we’ll start to see less of what I call 'weekend binge sleeping,'" Chen said. "The reason that becomes important is because that really is a sign that their sleep is regulating, and they’re getting more adequate sleep throughout the week.”

Chen, who advocated for the bell time changes, said parents in her practice are becoming more aware of how bell times can affect child sleep habits. "Interestingly, I have already begun to see other school districts that have not changed their school start times with families saying 'hey, how come our kids aren’t getting this?' Hopefully that level of advocacy across the board will continue to rise," Chen said.

That advocacy is underway again in Seattle, because about 15 percent of elementary schools didn’t get the early start times. Keeping some bell times approximately the same as years past allowed the district keep the same number of school buses and avoid spending money on the change, which district officials said was critical.

A group of late-start parents is now challenging that decision.

Thursday, September 29, 2016

Congress Eyes Changes to ABLE Act, Special Needs Trusts

From DisabilityScoop

By Michelle Diament
September 27, 2016

A handful of bills designed to make it easier for people with disabilities to save money are advancing in Congress.

Two pieces of legislation updating the Achieving a Better Life Experience, or ABLE, Act got a green light from the U.S. Senate Committee on Finance this month.

Under the ABLE Act, which became law in late 2014, people with disabilities can establish special accounts where they can save up to $100,000 without jeopardizing Social Security and other government benefits. Medicaid eligibility is not affected by any level of funds accrued in the accounts.

However, the accounts are currently limited to $14,000 in deposits per year. That would change under legislation known as the ABLE to Work Act that’s now headed before the full Senate.

The bill calls for people with disabilities who are employed to be allowed to save their earnings up to the federal poverty level — currently $11,770 for a single person — in their ABLE accounts above and beyond the existing cap, nearly doubling their annual savings allowance.

A separate measure that also won committee approval — the ABLE Financial Planning Act — would allow families to rollover money saved for an individual with a disability in a 529 college savings plan to an ABLE account.

“We anticipate that these could be two technically-significant improvements to the ABLE program that we could get done this Congress,” said Sara Hart Weir, president of the National Down Syndrome Society. “Especially for ABLE to Work, this is the most proactive improvement because we’re looking at ABLE as a way to incentivize employment.”

The first ABLE accounts became available this summer. Currently, four states have programs available and at least another dozen are expected before the end of the year, Weir said. Individuals living in any state can already take advantage of ABLE accounts offered through programs in Nebraska, Ohio and Tennessee.

A third tweak to the ABLE Act, which would allow people with a disability that onsets by age 46 to qualify for an account, has not yet been considered. At present, the ABLE Act only applies to those with a disability that occurs by age 26.

Meanwhile, aside from changes to the ABLE Act, the U.S. House of Representatives approved separate legislation this month impacting savings options for those with disabilities.

The Special Needs Trust Fairness and Medicaid Improvement Act would allow people with disabilities to establish their own special needs trusts. Under existing law, individuals must rely on other family members or petition a court in order to save money through a trust regardless of their own abilities.

“This is a fundamental issue of equal protection under the law for those who are facing life-changing disease or disability,” said U.S. Rep. Glenn Thompson, R-Pa., who sponsored the bill.

Similar legislation passed the Senate last year, but due to some changes, the bill approved by the House will now return to the Senate.

The Seekers: Why Parents Try Fringe Therapies for Autism

From Spectrum News

By Alisa Opar
September 21, 2016

Many parents resort to unproven, even dangerous, alternative treatments for their children’s autism. What drives them?

EDITOR'S NOTE: This article is the second in a four-part series on the unique relationship between researchers and families in the autism community. You can read the first article in the series here. The third article goes live 28 September.

When her daughter was diagnosed with autism in 2004, Ariane Zurcher threw herself into researching a condition she knew nothing about. Everything she read indicated a bleak future for Emma, then a toddler. It led Zurcher to believe Emma would never form deep relationships, and would probably lack empathy. She might have compulsive behaviors and meltdowns or try to harm herself. She might never speak or be toilet-trained, and, once Zurcher and her husband died, she might have to be institutionalized. Zurcher says she felt as though she were “descending into hell.”

“I was desperate to save my daughter,” says Zurcher. “We went to everybody. We tried everything.”

She and her husband took Emma to neurologists, gastroenterologists, behavioral, speech and occupational therapists, nutritionists, naturopaths, a shaman and homoeopath, a craniosacral therapist and a Qigong master. A developmental pediatrician — who didn’t take insurance, charged at least $200 per visit and had a months-long waiting list — recommended they call a psychic in Europe; the psychic, ironically, refused payment because she didn’t pick up a ‘signal’ from them.

They tried dozens of treatments that claimed to have ‘recovered’ children with autism, including numerous vitamin supplements, topical ointments, restrictive diets, chelation, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, brain scans, a so-called detoxification system and stem cell therapy.

Zurcher is hardly alone in her pursuit for something — anything — that might alleviate symptoms of autism in her child. Up to 88 percent of boys and girls with autism in the United States receive some alternative treatment, according to various studies. Parents are enticed by alternative therapies that promise to do everything from improving social interactions to restoring speech.

But there’s no scientific evidence to support these purported benefits. Few of these therapies have been adequately tested for safety or efficacy, many come with a hefty price tag, and some are downright dangerous.

“Once you start down that road, it’s hard to stop,” says Zurcher. As each intervention failed to help — much less ‘cure’ — Emma, Zurcher searched for the next one, feeling a surge of hope with each new possibility. “The allure of that one magic thing was so strong,” she says, “rational thinking was suspended again and again.”

The Dilemma

When it comes to alternative interventions, there’s a seemingly endless array of diets, supplements, high-tech therapies and other options. This abundance is a reflection of both the huge spike in autism diagnoses in recent years and the lack of good treatment options.

Scientists have uncovered tantalizing clues about the underpinnings of autism, but those findings haven’t translated into drugs to treat key aspects of the condition. “We do not have treatments that relate in any way to what causes autism spectrum disorder, or that really relate to what’s happening in the brain,” says Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, a child and adolescent psychiatrist and associate professor of psychiatry at Columbia University. “There are no quick fixes.”

The list of treatments with a solid evidence basis is short. Behavioral interventions for young children, which teach social skills through repetition and reward, have proved to be somewhat effective. The therapy is pricey, at up to $70,000 a year if insurance doesn’t cover it, requires 20 or more hours per week, and does not help all children with autism. Many also undergo speech and occupational therapy, to the tune of $10,000 or so each year.

On the pharmaceutical side, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved two drugs, risperidone and aripiprazole, to treat irritability in autism. The drugs are not approved to treat repetitive behavior or social deficits, and both have significant side effects, including weight gain, fatigue and anxiety.

Given those options, it’s not surprising that parents seek out alternatives. They don’t have to look far. Internet searches turn up treatments in troves, each one accompanied by anecdotes of children who improved or were even “cured.” Facebook groups dedicated to unproven interventions are legion. Dozens are dedicated to alternative therapies in general; others focus on a specific treatment, such as marijuana or essential oils. And at massive conventions, sellers present what they call “breakthrough” treatments.

These unproven treatments do not come cheap, and some are harmful. There is zero evidence that chelation therapy (roughly $4,000 for 30 sessions) — which removes heavy metals and minerals from the body — helps people with autism, and it carries a risk of heart failure.

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (about $10,000 for 80 sessions), in which individuals inhale pure oxygen in a pressurized chamber, can bruise eardrums and cause sinus pain and seizures.

Miracle Mineral Solution ($20 per bottle) is a chemical drink that turns into the same compound used to bleach textiles when mixed, as directed, with its citrus juice activator (an additional $20 per bottle). Side effects of ingesting the bleach (sodium chlorite) include nausea, vomiting and kidney failure, according to Health Canada.

The FDA has warned a number of companies, including those selling treatments listed above, that they may face legal action if they continue making false or misleading claims about treating or curing autism. In May, LearningRx agreed to pay the U.S. Federal Trade Commission a $200,000 fine for making false and unsubstantiated claims that its “brain training” program (reportedly $2,500 and up) can improve cognitive symptoms of autism.

“It’s a cottage industry of false hope,” says Paul Offit, professor of pediatrics at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and author of Autism’s False Prophets,” a book about dubious causes and cures. “To me, taking advantage of parents’ desperate desire to do anything to help their children is the lowest form of quackery.”

To an expert, dismissing pseudo-scientific alternatives or weighing the risks of potentially promising yet unproven treatments may be second nature. For parents, it’s much more complicated.

Emma’s Journey

Born in 2002, Emma grew into a rambunctious, social toddler who adored being around lots of people. When she started to speak, words often came out grouped together. “Chase me” was a near-constant demand.

When Emma was about 2 and a half, the family went on vacation to Cape Cod, Massachusetts, and spent time with two other families who had young children. Weeks before, Zurcher and her husband, Richard Long, had begun noticing Emma’s language falling away. As the couple watched the gaggle of kids, Zurcher turned to Long.

“When was the last time Emma said ‘chase me?’” she asked.

He paused. “When was the last time she said anything?” he said.

“That was the moment everything changed,” recalls Zurcher. After they returned home to New York City, Emma was quickly diagnosed with autism. Zurcher stopped working as an art director at an ad agency to focus on Emma full-time.

“You’re told there’s this window to your help your child, and it’s closing fast,” she says. “You feel like if you don’t hurry and try anything that might help, you’re a negligent parent.”

Emma was receiving behavioral and speech therapy, though neither seemed to help. She also suffered from gut problems. So Zurcher was encouraged when she found stories claiming that gluten-free, casein-free diets dramatically improve gastrointestinal (GI) issues, cognition and speech in some children with autism. Some parents reported remarkable improvements in their children’s behavior.

Zurcher cleaned out the kitchen, placed the long list of off-limits foods on the counter, and introduced Emma to the diet. Emma refused nearly everything. Zurcher would bake until 2 a.m. testing out new recipes, to no avail. Emma’s eye contact slightly improved — maybe. (Zurcher later realized it actually hadn’t.) But after just three months, Emma had lost a “frightening” amount of weight. So Zurcher brought back everything she had cut out. Now, Emma wouldn’t touch many foods she had loved before, including chicken, eggs and vegetables.

“We were worse off than before the diet,” says Zurcher. But she was undeterred in her quest to combat Emma’s autism: “I thought of it as a war.”

The war lasted seven long years. During that time, Emma took more than a dozen plant extracts to help her gut issues. They didn’t. Nor did a half-year of craniosacral therapy, a form of massage intended to relieve pain and pressure in the skull and the rest of the body. The Qigong master who promised to cure Emma by regulating her ‘energy flow’ was one of many who failed to deliver. Sticking detox pads to Emma’s feet to supposedly draw toxins from her body as she slept made no difference. Brushing therapy to reduce her sensitivity to touch riled her up and disrupted her sleep. Auditory integration therapy, aimed at quelling her hypersensitivity to sound, didn’t help or hurt.

Emma underwent one round of chelation before Zurcher and Long spoke to specialists at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine in the Bronx and learned the treatment is dangerous. (In fact, it had reportedly killed a child with autism.) They interrupted hyperbaric oxygen therapy — no improvement after a few sessions — to take her to Central America for stem cell therapy. After making three trips and seeing no effects, a conversation with experts in the U.S. convinced them not to return. The experts told them how risky and invasive the approach was, says Zurcher. “They literally begged us to stop.”

The couple didn’t always agree. Zurcher was more intent on finding and trying treatments than Long was, and he was more skeptical. When she decided to try another diet in 2011, he said, “I’m not okay with this, but I’m not going to stop you,” she recalls.

She had read that soy and spelt — two foods she hadn’t cut out of Emma’s diet before — were problematic. “I thought, I didn’t do it right,” she says. “Let me do it again.” Under the guidance of a naturopath, Zurcher scoured farmers’ markets for the right goat cheese. She ordered goose eggs from Minnesota. She baked homemade fruit leathers in the oven for 10 hours. Again, Emma refused most everything; she lost 15 percent of her body weight in six weeks.

“I came across her facing the wall. She’d stuffed a piece of goat cheese in her pocket and was eating it like a wild animal,” recalls Zurcher. “It was horrifying.” She stopped the diet.

“For so long, I thought any treatment was better than doing nothing at all,” Zurcher says. She’d had doubts about almost everything they’d tried, but she had pushed down her queasiness. Feeling perhaps greater despair than ever before, she began to seek out adults with autism. She hoped they might have insights that everyone who had tried to sell her something did not.

“I was desperate to save my daughter. We went to everybody; we tried everything.”
--Ariane Zurcher

Sounds like Science

The tricky thing about unproven treatments is that they sound scientific.

Take, for example, single-photon emission computed tomography, or SPECT. For around $3,500, Amen Clinics — brain health centers named for founder and doctor Daniel G. Amen — will scan a child’s brain to deliver an autism diagnosis and create targeted treatments. “We use brain SPECT scans plus clinical data to make diagnoses,” says Amen, adding that the clinics have scanned more than 1,000 people with autism.

Autism experts interviewed for this story say these scans are far from — and may never be — ready for use to diagnose autism. Some say it’s pretty much hocus-pocus. “These extremely expensive ‘evaluations,’ which are almost never covered by insurance, are best described as a scam perpetrated on families who are being preyed upon by false hopes,” says Columbia’s Veenstra-VanderWeele.

Brain scans can’t reveal autism, because researchers haven’t yet definitively identified autism-specific brain activity patterns or structures. And scans certainly can’t indicate which treatment would work.

For most parents, who have little understanding of how science is done, wading through claims made about alternative treatments can be befuddling. Even when someone knows to search PubMed, an online database of journal abstracts, she might not understand that obscure journals tend not to be taken seriously, and might not pick up on the difference between types of studies.

A case report about a single child may be of purely scientific interest as an avenue for further investigation, for instance, whereas results from a rigorous randomized controlled clinical trial with a large number of participants can provide solid information on whether a treatment works.

What’s more, media outlets often exaggerate the significance of findings. Take secretin, a peptide hormone that stimulates the secretion of digestive fluids from the pancreas. In the late 1990s, three children with autism were reported to improve dramatically after taking secretin. Word spread, parents heard about it on the news, and demand for secretin skyrocketed. But more than a dozen subsequent double-blind studies — in which neither the families nor the researchers knew which participants were in the placebo arm — found no evidence of effectiveness.

“As a scientist, you can end up on the front page of the science section of The New York Times with a new link to autism, but not really know if it’s causal,” says Catherine Lord, a clinical psychologist who heads the Center for Autism and the Developing Brain at New York-Presbyterian Hospital in New York City.

In other words, just because researchers find a connection between autism and a gene or some other factor does not mean that it causes the condition — or that blocking it can reverse the effects of autism. “I think it’s probably very confusing for parents. So when someone says, ‘I can take what that scientist said and make it meaningful for you right now,’ that’s incredibly appealing.”

At the AutismOne conference in Chicago this year, more than 150 practitioners and company representatives pitched therapies to hundreds of attendees in talks modeled on scientific presentations. Several presentations focused on the gut microbiome, reflecting findings suggesting that disturbances to gut microorganisms cause the GI problems that plague many children with autism.

At last year’s conference, a physician called Zach Bush explained, using slides of the gut viewed through a microscope as visual aids, how his plant-derived mineral supplement, RESTORE ($49.95 for a one-month supply), strengthens cell membranes in the gut to keep toxins from leaking out. Bush told the parents in the audience that he was “excited to just be a piece of your puzzle” in the parents’ quest to “rebirth that child into a state of health.” The company did not respond to multiple requests for comment.

The microbiome connection is in fact under investigation by multiple respected research groups. One hypothesis being explored is that disruption to gut microorganisms causes a ‘leaky gut’ that allows bacteria to escape into the body, altering brain function and contributing to autism behaviors.

But promises such as Bush’s are way ahead of the research, says Ruth Ann Luna, director of medical metagenomics at the Texas Children’s Microbiome Center in Houston. “Right now, we’re trying to characterize the gut biome in kids with autism who have significant GI problems,” she says. Doing so could help pave the way for treating people who have both autism and gut issues. This is an intriguing avenue of investigation, but RESTORE and probiotic drinks marketed as autism treatments aren’t yet backed up by research.

An even more aggressive approach, says Luna, is parents doing fecal microbiota transplants at home — although the transplants are worth investigating in clinical trials, she says. These parents mix a stool sample from a neurotypical family member with saline, strain the concoction, and then give the resulting liquid via enema to a child with autism. Instructions are readily available on YouTube. “It’s very experimental and certainly risky to do without the oversight of a physician,” she says.

When unproven treatments target the same links to autism being explored in serious research, it’s that much more difficult for parents to evaluate the claims. “These so-called ‘experts’ are so confident, and they sound so convincing,” says Zurcher.

Someone searching for information on, say, toxins that might have a link to autism could come across the “Ion Cleanse by AMD for ASD” Facebook group, where more than 3,300 members exchange information about a footbath made by a company called AMD. “As children’s bodies begin to detox, the systems that were energetically blocked or shut down can start to function normally again,” the AMD website says.

“We don’t claim to treat autism,” says owner Neill Moroney, who estimates 1,000 to 1,100 people with autism have used the $1,995 footbath. Moroney says he would like to conduct a blinded trial with 30 children over 90 days to determine whether the gadget truly alleviates symptoms of autism. But he says the funding is difficult to find. “What I’m looking for is someone with the resources to give it the shot it deserves,” he says.

Testing the Untested

Stem cell therapy is getting that shot, with two trials underway in the U.S. In animal models, one type of stem cell has been shown to alleviate inflammation in several types of tissue, including that from the brain, bowel and bone. Postmortem studies of children with autism have revealed inflammation of brain tissue. Stem cell therapy isn’t approved in the U.S., but several foreign clinics offer it for around $10,000. Sarah Collins credits the adult stem cell injections her two children received in Panama City, Panama, with the “recovery” of her older son and improvement in her younger son, both of whom were diagnosed with autism. Her experience led her to co-found the “Stem Cell Therapy for Autism” Facebook group.

She says one reason parents might not want to take part in clinical trials in the U.S. is that their child might end up in the placebo arm of the trial. “They won’t mess with that,” Collins says. “They’ll go right to Panama instead.”

But experts say without knowing more about whether and how the therapy works, those are costly, potentially risky ventures. The overseas clinics offer “hope, not a proven treatment,” says Emanuel DiCicco-Bloom, a child neurologist and neuroscientist at Rutgers Robert Wood Johnson Medical School in New Brunswick, New Jersey. DiCicco-Bloom’s team is taking blood cells from children with autism and their unaffected siblings and converting them into stem cells. The team then turns those cells into neurons and studies them at different stages of development, in hopes of identifying the differences between the siblings.

“We’re seeing differences in the numbers of cells, kinds of cells, synapses, which suggests what might be contributing to autism,” he says. “But at this point, it’s not like we can say: ‘You’re missing these specific cells, let’s put them back.’”

Stem cell treatments could also be dangerous. Even though the clinic in Panama, for instance, states on its website that it tests for viruses and bacteria, “until a year ago, nobody would’ve looked for Zika,” DiCicco-Bloom says.

Knowing the risks, Karen Shearer decided to try stem cells anyway. After all, she says, almost nothing has helped her 13-year-old daughter, Skye, who is nonverbal, cannot dress herself and wears a diaper.

To cover Skye’s first treatment in Tijuana, Mexico, in 2007, the family cashed in a life insurance policy; Shearer says it “was probably a scam.” Last year’s $10,000 therapy in Panama, partly funded by a campaign, also failed. Then Shearer discovered a clinic in Cancun, Mexico, on Collins’ Facebook group that infuses cells via lumbar puncture, which the clinic says ensures the cells reach the brain. The only improvement Shearer has seen is that Skye is no longer terrified of the swimming pool.

Once she pays off her $11,000 credit card debt from Cancun, Shearer knows what’s next: the Plasticity Brain Centers, which claims to reconnect neural pathways after their proprietary diagnostic technology pinpoints “the exact brain functions that need treatment.” Skye has tried other brain-related treatments, but this one, Shearer says, seems to take a different approach.

At this point, she says, her dream is that her daughter will dress herself and use the toilet. “Skye’s getting older but still functioning like a 2-year-old, and I’m getting more desperate,” she says. “How will I function 10 years from now? How will she?”

Better Advice

Given the dizzying profusion of alternative treatments, parents can find it a challenge to navigate the options and weigh the risks. A few websites provide parents with the right questions to ask: Does this practitioner or vendor promise miracles that no one else seems to achieve? Is the person promising the outcome also asking me for money? Do I find any scientific research supporting their claims, or are there only individual (often emotional) testimonials?

Many medical professionals may not take the time to talk through the potential risks or flaws of alternative therapies. But Antonio Hardan, a child and adolescent psychiatrist at Stanford University who specializes in autism, makes a point of it. “I’ve been in this field for 15 years, and seemingly every month you have something that people get excited about, and then it dies out,” he says. If whatever the latest is seems unsafe, he cautions against it — “though parents don’t always follow our recommendations,” he notes.

If the treatment seems safe, he helps families figure out how to include it in their schedule and budget, and instructs them to try it for three months, then stop and see what happens. Even with these guidelines, it’s difficult to connect an improvement to an intervention, he says: “You don’t know if it’s the drug or the child’s natural maturity process.”

Parents often combine multiple approaches, making it even more challenging to track cause and effect. “I saw a kid last week who is taking 80 different supplements,” says Hardan. More commonly, children take about 10 to 15 supplements, he says. “You could be the smartest person on earth and not understand how they are working together.”

He emphasizes that parents should discuss all the treatments they try with medical professionals — for safety reasons, but also because something they’re doing might warrant scientific investigation. Hardan himself has launched studies into unproven therapies he’s learned of from the families he works with. He is testing whether the neurosteroid pregnenolone alleviates irritability in children with autism.

His group is also considering a study into the current “big thing:” cannabis. After seeing how cannabidiol — derived from marijuana — helps children with epilepsy, some parents have begun giving it to their children with autism and reporting drops in anxiety, aggression and self-injurious behavior.

“It’s possible there may be something beneficial out there,” says Hardan. “But currently, we don’t know if these are safe and effective, much less the appropriate dose and duration.” In this case, parents are far ahead of medical research, which can’t yet offer any answers.

“It’s a cottage industry of false hope.”
--Paul Offit

Finally, Peace

When Zurcher went looking for adults with autism who might offer insight into what the future holds for Emma, an intense internet search led her to Julia Bascom’s blog, Just Stimming. As she read every post and clicked through to every site linked from Bascom’s site, she found people who saw autism as an integral part of their identity.

“It was as though I’d been living my life believing in this one universe, and then I was shown this alternate universe,” she says. “My entire focus changed. Instead of fighting against Emma’s neurology and trying to cure this heinous disorder, I started finding ways to help her flourish.”

One major focus was giving Emma a means of communication other than speech, which is difficult for her. Ask her name, and she might respond, “You may not spit.” Ask her age, and she might tell you she’s 10. (She’s 14.) Hand her a keyboard, though, and she’ll type the correct answers — and much more. She goes slowly, picking out one letter at a time, all by herself. A single sentence can take a couple of minutes to craft, but the effort allows her to express herself. “There’s not a direct line between my brain and my mouth,” she wrote for an English assignment in May.

Lord says that for those children who can and want to type, it can be beneficial. But there’s no guarantee that all children with autism can learn to type. “There are a very small number of people with autism who you’d think could never type, who do become able to type independently,” Lord says.

Today, Emma takes three classes at her brother’s school and is otherwise homeschooled. She wants to get her high school diploma someday, which looks like a real possibility. She still gets occupational therapy, but quit speech therapy after deciding she didn’t like it. She loves to listen to music, dance, wear frilly dresses and write for the blog she’s taken over from her mother.

Typing has been a boon; last year, for instance, Emma told her mother she was having stomach pains, something she couldn’t have easily conveyed before. Still, she continues to face serious challenges. She struggles, for instance, with the inability to control things she feels compelled to say, and bites down on her arm to help dispel stress, even though she knows others find the behavior disturbing.

“I cannot sit quietly unless I am able to twirl my string, softly murmur to myself and have a timer nearby. I cannot read aloud or answer most questions verbally, but I can type,” she wrote in February. “I have an incredibly large capacity to listen, learn and feel.”

Zurcher says the money they spent on their quest for a cure was “insane.” She refuses to tally up the total. “My daughter has a disability, she is challenged, absolutely,” says Zurcher. “And we make it so much harder by stigmatizing people with autism for having a different neurology.” What still haunts Zurcher is the thought that she might have exposed her daughter to treatments that harmed her, perhaps in ways they’ll never know.

The family no longer takes those risks with Emma’s health. These days, Emma decides which, if any, interventions to pursue. “It’s much more sensible, I think,” says Zurcher. “But I’m also not living in terror anymore.”

When asked, Emma has said that aside from occupational therapy, none — not one — of the interventions helped her, Zurcher says. But she doesn’t seem to hold a grudge. In fact, she appears to forgive her mother more readily than Zurcher forgives herself. During a conversation in 2014 about past treatments, Emma seemed to understand exactly why her mother pursued so many therapies over the years.

“You thought my autism was hurting me and that you needed to remove it, but you did not understand that it is a neurological difference,” she typed. “Fear caused you to behave with desperation.”

Wednesday, September 28, 2016

Anxiety and Homework: Helping Your Child Shift From Undone to All Done - Parent Workshop in Newton Thursday, October 13th

From NESCA News & Notes
September 27, 2016

This special presentation will cover:
  • How is anxiety useful, and how to tell when it becomes a disorder;
  • The physiological processes that underlie anxiety and how they interfere with a child’s functioning;
  • The different ways anxiety disorders typically present themselves in children;
  • Why tension is a natural part of the parent-child partnership beginning in middle school;
  • The stages of behavior change and why they matter;
  • Strategies for helping anxious children;
  • Tools to manage specific anxiety-provoking tasks. 

When:   7:00 -8:30pm, Thursday, October 13, 2016

Where: NESCA
                  55 Chapel Street, Newton, MA 02458

Cost:     $15 per person

RSVP by email to:


Nancy Roosa, Psy.D., Pediatric Neuropsychologist, NESCA

Nancy Roosa, Psy.D. has provided neuropsychological evaluations for children since 1997. She enjoys working with a range of children, particularly those with autism spectrum disorders, as well as children with attentional issues, executive function deficits, anxiety disorders, learning disabilities, or other social, emotional or behavioral problems.

Dr. Roosa's evaluations are highly-individualized and comprehensive, integrating data obtained from a wide range of standardized assessment tools with information gained from history, input from parents, teachers and providers, and important observations gleaned from interacting with the child. Her approach to testing is playful and supportive.

Dr. Roosa has also consulted with several area schools, either about individual children or about programmatic concerns. She speaks to parent or school groups, upon request.

Michael Delman, CEO, Beyond BookSmart

Massachusetts Distinguished Educator Michael Delman founded Beyond BookSmart (previously Thinking Outside the Classroom) in 2006 and serves as its CEO. In addition to being a highly sought after speaker and Executive Function coach, he also helps the leaders of his team achieve greater levels of efficacy.

Michael is also the co-founder of the McAuliffe Regional Charter Public School in Framingham, MA, a middle school teaching over 350 students through the Expeditionary Learning Outward Bound school model. He served as McAuliffe’s founding principal and has been an active member of its Board of Trustees since 2008.

Prior to that, Michael taught in the Southborough Public Schools for eight years, during which time he received the Anti-Defamation League’s Teacher Incentive Award for creating a superior learning environment for his students.

As an educator since 1982, Michael’s primary mission has always been to make learning relevant and to help young people find capacities in themselves that they don’t know they have.

Four Classroom Strategies for Integrating Critical Thinking and Kinesthetic Learning

From Getting Smart

By Sandra L. Love, Ed.D.
September 26, 2016

There was a time when teacher-centered learning, or “sit and get,” was the classroom norm: the teacher would stand in front of the classroom lecturing, hoping students were “getting” something out of the lesson.

I prefer a more student-centered approach. It has been said, “Learning is more effective when it is an active rather than a passive process,” and I couldn’t agree more.

Recently, I had an opportunity to co-present a session, “Fusing Critical Thinking with Kinesthetic Learning,” during Critical Thinking LIVE, a one-day professional development conference for educators.

Kinesthetic learning is defined as learning through physical movement versus static lectures or through the observation of demonstrations.

This style of learning places a great deal of emphasis on the connection between movement and cognitive abilities and motor skills. In essence, it gets students out of their seats and engages them in moving and interacting with peers while learning.

This approach shifts the classroom from a teacher-centered environment to a more engaging student-centered experience.

Following are four highly effective classroom strategies that fuse critical thinking with kinesthetic learning. Each strategy is designed to spur dialogue, get the oxygen pumping and make the lessons much more dynamic.

In particular, struggling learners may benefit from these strategies, as they can become frustrated and restless during challenging lessons.

Any of these strategies can be applied to a variety of subjects including music, math, arts, science and English language arts. (Remember, before implementing any form of kinesthetic learning, consider the physical layout of the room and your students’ needs).

Strategy No. 1: Four Corners

Using the Four Corners strategy, students move to one corner of the room based on their responses to a question. Each corner represents an answer choice. Once the purpose of the strategy is explained to the class, pose a thoughtful question, then provide time for individual thought and reflection before allowing students to move to a corner of choice (three corners will also work).

Students will discuss and justify their selected responses with others standing in the same corner. Following discussions, students are invited to share with the entire class. Often, students hear evidence that convinces them to change their thinking.

The Four Corners strategy promotes deeper discussion, reflection and analysis among students.

Strategy No. 2: Consensogram

Begin by posing a question, with students rating on a scale ranging from “never,” “seldom,” “sometimes,” “always.” Direct students to use sticky notes or colored dots to transfer their ratings to a scale on chart paper before forming small groups to examine the data and discuss conclusions. Conclude the lesson by conducting a class discussion.

Some questions that might lead the discussion include, “What observations can you make about the data?” “What patterns are noticeable?” “What surprises you?” “What conclusions might you draw?”

This strategy provides an excellent opportunity for helping students uncover evidence to support their opinions, encouraging them to make sound, well-reasoned arguments for or against an issue.

Strategy No. 3: Vocabulary Building

Present a statement, identifying the vocabulary term or phrase you want the students to demonstrate via movement. Have students choose one of three activities (use hand gestures, form a group statue, or create a model) to demonstrate the identified vocabulary. After small group collaboration, have the students share and debrief with the class.

In addition to getting students out of their seats and moving, the Vocabulary Building strategy strengthens the development of word associations, which becomes particularly important for college and career readiness.

Strategy No. 4: Human Continuum

For this strategy, start by identifying the text or topic of discussion, usually a question or dilemma meant to stir debate, such as, “Is torture ever justified?” Record students’ initial reactions and then have them to move to locations along the continuum that indicates their agreement or disagreement with the statement.

While students stand on the continuum (an imaginary line that stretches across the room), have students turn to others nearby and justify their positions. Conclude the lesson by conducting a discussion involving the entire class.

The Human Continuum Strategy helps students examine if they made a decision on their own or it they were influenced by their friends. As we know, students can sometimes be prone to jumping on the bandwagon because they fear giving the “wrong” answer.

When used appropriately, fusing critical thinking with movement can make for a powerful learning tool. As students move, discuss, reflect, and analyze, learning becomes active, with the student-centered experience compelling students to dig deeper into the content while enjoying the learning process and building their confidence.

Dr. Sandra L. Love is Director of Education Insight and Research at Mentoring Minds. Follow them on Twitter: @mentoringminds

Education Research Highlights From 2015

From Edutopia

By Youki Terada
December 21, 2015

2015 was a great year for education research!

fMRI technology gave us new insight into how exercise can improve math ability by changing the structure of children's brains (#13 below). We saw how Sesame Street's 40-year history has made an impact on preparing young children for school (#7). Several studies reinforced the importance of social and emotional learning for students (#2, 5, and 9). Two must-read publications were released to help educators understand how students learn (#4 and 11).

Here are 15 studies published this year that every educator should know about.

1.) Well-Designed Classrooms Boost Student Learning

A classroom's physical learning space makes a difference in how well students learn. In this study of 27 schools in England, researchers found that improving a primary classroom’s physical design, including lighting, layout, and decorations, can improve academic performance by as much as 16 percent (although too many decorations can be a distraction).

2.) The Benefits of Being Kind Last from Kindergarten to Adulthood

Kindness matters. Kindergarten students who share, help others, and show empathy are more likely to have personal, educational, and career success as adults, finds this study that tracked 753 children from 1991 to 2010.

3.) Theatre Programs Help Students with Autism

Did you know that participating in theatre programs can help students with autism learn to play in groups, communicate with others, and recognize faces? These are the findings of a study by researchers from Vanderbilt University.

4.) The Science of Learning

If you’re looking for an excellent review of research on how students learn, check out The Science of Learning. Drawing from cognitive science, this report breaks down the research into six principles with a full reference list and teaching tips.

5.) Investing $1 in Social and Emotional Learning Yields $11 in Long-Term Benefits

We know that SEL has tremendous benefits for student learning, but what are the long-term economic benefits? Researchers analyzed the economic impact of six widely-used SEL programs and found that on average, every dollar invested yields $11 in long-term benefits, ranging from reduced juvenile crime, higher lifetime earnings, and better mental and physical health.

6.) Low-Income Students Now a Majority

51 percent of the students across the nation’s public schools now come from low-income families.

7.) Sesame Street Boosts Learning for Preschool Children

Sesame Street was introduced over 40 years ago an educational program to help prepare children for school. Examining census data, researchers discovered that preschool-aged children in areas with better reception did better in school. Children living in poorer neighborhoods experienced the largest gains in school performance.

8.) Don’t Assign More Than 70 Minutes of Homework

For middle school students, assigning up to 70 minutes of daily math and science homework was beneficial, but assigning more than 90-100 minutes resulted in a decline in academic performance. Read more about the research on homework.

9.) Mindfulness Exercises Boost Math Scores

Mindfulness exercises help students feel more positive, and a new study found that it can also boost math performance. Elementary school students that participated in a mindfulness program had 15 percent better math scores, in addition to several emotional and psychological benefits.

10.) Boys Get Higher Math Scores When Graded by Teachers Who Know Their Names

In this Israeli study, middle and high school students were randomly assigned to be graded anonymously or by teachers who knew their names. Despite performing worse than girls in math when graded anonymously, boys had better scores when teachers knew who they were.

11.) Top Psychology Principles Every Teacher Should Know

How do students think and learn? The American Psychological Association sought to answer this question with the help of experts across a wide variety of psychological fields. The result: 20 science-backed principles that explain how social and behavioral factors influence learning.

12.) To Help Students with ADHD Concentrate, Let Them Fidget

Since hyperactivity can be a natural state for students with ADHD, preventing them from fidgeting can hurt their ability to stay focused. For tips on how to let students fidget quietly, check out 17 Ways to Help Students With ADHD Concentrate.

13.) The Neuroscience Behind Exercise and Math Ability

Research shows that exercise has a positive effect on learning, but studies generally tend to be observational. With the use of fMRI technology, however, researchers have gained new insight into how people learn. Scientists examined the brain structures of children and found that when young children exercise, their brains produce a thinner layer of cortical gray matter, which can lead to stronger math skills.

14.) The Benefits of a Positive Message Home

Getting parents more involved in their child’s education is a great way to boost student learning. When teachers sent short weekly messages to parents with tips on how their kids could improve, it led to higher-quality home discussions and cut course dropout rates by almost half.

15.) When Teachers Collaborate, Math and Reading Scores Go Up

Teaching can feel like an isolating profession, but this new study shows that working in groups -- especially instructional teams -- can boost student learning.